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After I/O starts, control returns to user program without waiting for I/O completion. ✦ System call – request to the operating system to allow user to wait for I/O completion. ✦ Device-status table contains entry for each I/O device indicating its type, address, and state. ✦ Operating system indexes into I/O device table to determine device status and to modify table entry to include interrupt. 9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 Direct Memory Access Structure ■ Used for high-speed I/O devices able to transmit information at close to memory speeds.

2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 Computer-System Operation ■ I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently. ■ Each device controller is in charge of a particular device ■ ■ ■ ■ type. Each device controller has a local buffer. CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller. Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt. 3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 Common Functions of Interrupts ■ Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine ■ ■ ■ ■ generally, through the interrupt vector, which contains the addresses of all the service routines.

An operating system is interrupt driven. 4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 Interrupt Handling ■ The operating system preserves the state of the CPU by storing registers and the program counter. 6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 I/O Structure ■ After I/O starts, control returns to user program only upon I/O completion. ✦ Wait instruction idles the CPU until the next interrupt ✦ Wait loop (contention for memory access). ✦ At most one I/O request is outstanding at a time, no simultaneous I/O processing.

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20687A Configuring Windows 8, Microsoft Hyper-V Classroom Setup Guide


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