By Sebastian Nordhoff.
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Additional resources for A grammar of upcountry Sri Lanka Malay
Hussainmiya 1987:58) The number of Malays serving varied in function of the military needs of the Dutch. Under normal conditions, there were 800 men in service, divided into 10 companies. But sometimes the Dutch need for soldiers was so dramatic that the kampungs were virtually depopulated (Hussainmiya 1987:56). In 1764 the number of Malay soldiers rose from 800 to 2500 in anticipation of a war with the Kandyan king. In 1795/6 there were probably around 1400 Malays serving, comprising recruited civilians.
This identity and cohesion would have been further strengthened in the unknown foreign country. In Batavia, there were different kampungs for the different ethnic groups (de Haan 1935:451ff). But this does not mean that there was no contact between the different groups. The kampungs were not autarkic,5 and one had to interact with other communities and make oneself understood. To this end, inhabitants employed a language of interethnic communication, a Malay-based lingua franca in their case (de Haan (1935:470), Raben (2000:102)).
Hussainmiya further cites Bacan, Tidore, Timor, Madura and Sumatra. The Javanese succession wars in the late 17th century brought more Javanese exiles to Ceylon. Most of the exiles had their families with them at deportation time or they joined them later. Hussainmiya (1990:39) gives 200 as a likely number for the exiles at the end of the 18th century, about 10% of the Malay population at the time. Most of the exiles lived in the 4 main coastal towns Colombo, Galle, Trincomalee and Jaffna. While we have a certain knowledge of how many exiles came from which region, the case is more difficult for the convicts and the slaves (Hussainmiya 1987:47).
A grammar of upcountry Sri Lanka Malay by Sebastian Nordhoff.