By Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo
Among 1940 and 1945, millions of African american citizens migrated from the South to the East Bay quarter of northern California looking for the social and monetary mobility that used to be linked to the region's increasing safeguard and its attractiveness for higher racial tolerance. Drawing on fifty oral interviews with migrants in addition to on archival and different written files, Abiding braveness examines the stories of the African American ladies who migrated west and outfitted groups there.Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo vividly indicates how ladies made the transition from southern household and box paintings to jobs in an commercial, wartime economic climate. while, they have been suffering to maintain their households jointly, constructing new families, and developing community-sustaining networks and associations. whereas white ladies shouldered the double burden of salary hard work and house responsibilities, black girls confronted even higher demanding situations: discovering homes and faculties, finding church buildings and clinical providers, and contending with racism. by means of targeting ladies, Lemke-Santangelo offers new views on the place and the way social swap occurs and the way neighborhood is tested and maintained.
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Additional info for Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community
Making New Homes in the East Bay Area 69 4 I Always Desired Independence, Never Wealth. Migrant Women and Wage Labor 107 5 I Never Denied Where I Came From. Migrant Women and Their Cultural Work in the East Bay 133 6 If We Didn't Do It, It Just Wouldn't Get Done. Migrant Women and Collective Action in the East Bay 153 Conclusion 79 Notes 183 Bibliography 201 Index 211 A section of photographs begins on page. 97 Page ix Tables 1. Percent and Number of Births of Migrants between 1900 and 193334 2.
Eric Lincoln. As ideas for this study emerged and coalesced, my friends at Duke University and the University of California, Berkeley, provided unflagging support and helpful insights. Kirsten Fischer, Martha Jane Brazy, Nancy Quam Wickham, and Greg Hise, who all read drafts of the manuscript, greatly enlarged my interpretive framework and analyses. Charles Wollenberg, a California historian, also provided encouragement and helpful insights. After I submitted the manuscript to the University of North Carolina Press, Barbara Hanrahan and Christi Stanforth shepherded the manuscript through the revision and publication process with great kindness, tact, efficiency, and attention to detail.
Merchants and landowners profited through high interest rates, inflated prices for goods, and the fraudulent manipulation of tenants' accounts; consequently, poor farmers endured a system of peonage. The life of the chronically indebted contained serious hardship and frequent hunger. 21 During the depression, conditions for tenants went from bad to worse. Because New Deal agricultural reforms offered them compensation for Page 18 plowing crops under or holding land out of production, landowners evicted thousands of tenant families.
Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community by Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo