By John English
This booklet is an advent to Ada ninety five. It makes use of an example-driven method which progressively develops small trivial courses into huge case-study style courses. the most emphasis of this publication is on upkeep difficulties, and utilizing object-oriented expertise to write down maintainable, extensible courses. software layout is brought during the e-book, with hypothetical upkeep eventualities used to shoe layout shortcomings. and revise them to accomodate upkeep wishes. useful matters equivalent to debugging courses are tackled, and demanding Ada beneficial properties no longer present in different languages are handled essentially and early on within the textual content. those contain exception dealing with, user-defined varieties, methods, services, applications and baby programs. Preface and entry to chapters three and 17 viahttp:IIwww.comp.it.bton.ac.uk/je.adacraft plus all examples and recommendations might be downloaded.
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Additional resources for Ada 95: The Craft of Object-Oriented Programming
End if; Not in is the opposite of in: if Answer not in 'A' .. 6 The null statement Case statements must cover all the possible values of the expression between case and is. This means that there has usually to be a when others clause, but sometimes you don’t want to do anything if the value doesn’t match any of the other selections. The solution is to use the null statement: when others => null; -- do nothing The null statement is provided for situations like this one where you have to say something but don’t want to do anything.
The answer will be a single character ('m' or 'a'), so I’ve declared it to be a variable of type Character, which is another standard data type. Character variables are capable of holding a single character. Text_IO which has an output parameter of type Character. Lines 4 through 8 are an if statement which allows us to choose between two alternative courses of action. Like a procedure definition it is a compound construction with a semicolon at the very end of it on line 8 and no semicolons on either line 4 or 6.
In this case a sensible action might be to print out an error message when a Constraint_Error or a Data_Error occurs. Here’s how to do it: procedure Calculator is Result : Integer; Operator : Character; Operand : Integer; begin Put ("Enter an expression: "); ... htm (18 of 21) [6/23/2003 8:36:22 AM] Ada 95: Chapter 3 Put_Line ("Error in input -- integer expected"); end Calculator; The exception handler section goes at the very end; it’s ignored if there aren’t any errors. If a Constraint_Error or a Data_Error is reported (or raised, to use the correct terminology), you immediately end up at the appropriate exception handler and do what it says.
Ada 95: The Craft of Object-Oriented Programming by John English