By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
The reports during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective classification, yet those range in personality and in measurement. In its grammatical homes, an adjective classification may well beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective category is big and will be freely extra to, in others it really is small and closed. with only a dozen or so contributors. The e-book will curiosity students and complex scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.
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Extra resources for Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology
The second parameter of grammatical variation is rather different. Members of very nearly all adjective classes—whether of type I or type II—may in some way modify a noun within an NP. In some languages this involves just apposition of adjective and noun, in others a relative clause (or similar) marker maybe required. In a fair number of languages an adjective has the possibility of making up an entire NP, without any stated noun (although a head noun may be implicit, and ellipsed under certain discourse conditions).
For examples and discussion of adjectives in English which can occur only as modifier or only as copula 2 In some languages a noun may be modified by more than one adjective. There is generally a preferred order in which the semantic types will occur. In English, where adjectives precede the noun, the unmarked order is VALUE, DIMENSION, PHYSICAL PROPERTY, SPEED, HUMAN PROPENSITY, AGE, COLOUR (Dixon 1982: 24-5). In languages where adjectives follow the noun, the ordering is roughly the reverse of this.
W. 1. Different possibilities within the predicate slot In some languages exactly the same morphological processes and syntactic modifiers may apply to a verb and an adjective within a predicate. However, in many languages the possibilities vary. Most typically, an adjective is far more restricted than a verb when it occurs as predicate head. For example, in the Iroquoian language Cherokee (Feeling 1975), a verb as predicate head allows three types of prefix and two varieties of suffix. In contrast, an adjective as predicate head allows only pronominal prefixes: (11) Predicate structure in Cherokee verb adjective ±initial +pronom- ±reflexive prefixes inal prefix prefix 8 orders, including negative, 'again', 'since' adjective +verb/ ±non-final adjective root suffixes 13 orders, including reversive, repetitive, completed, tense/aspect, interrogative ±fmal suffix pre-incipient, future, infinitive, tense, etc.
Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald