By Claude Hagége
This pioneering research is predicated on an research of over two hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a virtually common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, similar to jap, have postpositions; others have either; and but others types that aren't really both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among components of a sentence: often one point governs a noun or noun-like observe or word whereas the opposite features as a predicate. From the syntactic viewpoint, the supplement of an adposition is determined by a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head will depend on relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the center of the grammar of such a lot languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological positive factors, syntactic capabilities, and semantic and cognitive houses. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that categorical the kinfolk of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark area, time, accompaniment, or software. Adpositions usually govern case and are often steadily grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the full set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws gentle on strategies of morphological and syntactic swap in several languages and language households. His booklet may be welcomed through typologists and by means of syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Extra info for Adpositions
3). The transition between lexemic and morphemic statuses is gradual, as are many other transition types in languages, and this is the reason why it is probably better to viewadpositionhood and casehood not as simple properties, but rather as complex ones, which entails that these properties are analysable into sets of more basic properties (cf. Plank 1989: 19). Consequently, Adps and case affixes are best distinguished by a combination of the phonological, morphological, word-order, syntactic, semantico-pragmatic, and historical criteria that I have examined in the sections above.
Prs, at least, are quite distinct from case affixes, since the former, unlike most of the latter (but not all of them: cf. 3), precede their governed term. But this does not apply, of course, to other Adp types. Let us examine, then, other word-order differences. An important one is 30 Adpositions that case affixes occur in a determinate position with respect to their governed term, whereas Adps may be separated from their governed term by inserted, words. Such discontinuous Adp-phrases were a particular feature, for instance, of Old Norse, where one finds many examples like (35): (35) OLD NORSE (Germanic, Indo-European) (Faarlund 1995: 64-6) a.
Let us briefly recall that a fusional case affix i. ); ii. e. the personal/possessive pronominal system, as shown by English him (•- 3rd person + accusative/dative + masculine), although this also ocursin languages which are otherwhise synchronically agglutinative, like Kannarese (cf. Hagège 1990a: 300-1); in certain languages, such as Aymara, Galibi, Guarani, Erzya Mordvin, and others, pronominal systems contain blended forms, which I have called sagittal (cf. e. an agent first or second person acting, respectively, upon a patient second or first person.
Adpositions by Claude Hagége