By Dr. Stefan Nilsson (auth.)
The purpose of this booklet is to supply a complete description and dialogue of autonomic nerve functionality within the vertebrates from numerous issues of view. Sections on anatomy, biochemistry of the transmitter components and the constitution, body structure and pharmacology of the differing kinds of autonomic neurons were integrated, including chapters facing the autonomic worried keep an eye on of a few organs and organ structures within the varied vertebrate teams. even supposing wisdom in numerous of those parts is predicated totally on reports of mammals, a undeniable emphasis has been put on the autonomic nerve capabilities within the non-mammalian vertebrates to explain, from a comparative physiological standpoint, the variations and attainable "phylogenetic developments" within the improvement of the autonomic nerve services within the vertebrates. it's very noticeable that the literature created by way of the full of life examine actions in the fields of autonomic anxious anatomy, histochemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology and body structure is big certainly, and never all features of the topic could have bought reasonable remedy within the current quantity. With an analogy from astronomy, it truly is was hoping that the mass compressed into this ebook has reached the extent of an energy-emitting neutron big name, instead of the black gap which might be the results of compressing too huge a mass.
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Extra resources for Autonomic Nerve Function in the Vertebrates
Although there is no known system in which an adrenergic neuron is entirely dependent on catecholamines synthesized in and released from the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells, such a system could well work. 2. Release. The substance should be released from the neuron during nerve stimulation in quantities large enough to produce a postsynaptic response (response of the effector cell). In all known cases, the neuronal release of transmitter is dependent on Ca2 + ions. 42 3. Mimicry. Exogenous application of the substance should produce the same effect as nerve stimulation on the effector cell (organ).
Before doing so, it is practical to outline some general features of the autonomic neurons, and also the criteria used to establish a new substance as a transmitter in the autonomic nervous system. 1 Transmitter Substances It is customary to consider five criteria that must be fulfilled to establish a new substance as a neurotransmitter. The following criteria are often used (Iversen 1979, Burnstock 1981). 1. Synthesis and Storage. The substance must be synthesized and stored within the neuron.
With the introduction of a subclassification of the adrenoceptors, the presynaptic a-adrenoceptors have been placed in the az-category (Berthelsen and Pettinger 1977, see also Chap. 1). Interestingly enough, there is now also evidence for the presence of presynaptic p-adrenoceptors, which instead mediate facilitation of the release and thus provide a positive feed-back "loop" (Adler-Graschinsky and Langer 1975, DahlOf et al. 1975, 1978 a, b, Stjarne and Brundin 1976, DahI6fI981). Presynaptic a-adrenoceptors that inhibit neurotransmitter release are not only present in the adrenergic nerve terminals, but are also involved in a heteromodulation of acetylcholine release (Kilbinger and Wessler 1979, Gustafsson 1980), and may indeed be a feature of all autonomic neurons.
Autonomic Nerve Function in the Vertebrates by Dr. Stefan Nilsson (auth.)